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Table 2 Evidence creators have acted upon areas

From: Say NOPE to social disorganization criminology: the importance of creators in neighborhood social control

There are many ways to detect the role of creators, few of which require substantial training, skill, or resources. The items below are some of the most obvious
Physical Evidence. Much of this can be seen walking or driving through a city
 • Streets, especially if in forms unlikely to be generated by an undirected process (e.g., grid networks in North America; crescents in the United Kingdom)
 • Areas of housing, or other buildings, that are architecturally similar, if not identical, constructed at the same time; planned estates; housing projects; business parks
 • Large scale disruptions of street and building patterns created by infrastructure (e.g., highways, train tracks)
 • Signage in gentrifying areas mentioning developers, financiers, and government agencies (e.g., XYZ Group, financed by ABC Bank, funded by MNO Agency)
Records Evidence. Available from government agencies, laws and statues, or historical records
 • Zoning controls over land use and development. The physical evidence is often visible on the ground, but also in the paper record of laws
 • Historical records of institutions of developed areas, real estate companies, banks, mortgage holders, government housing agencies
 • Photographs of old landscapes compared to current landscapes illustrating large-scale transformations (e.g., old canal vs. today's boulevard)
Statistical Evidence. Found in databases maintained by governments and businesses
 • Ownership records of land parcels showing a few entities own a considerable amount of property
 • Linking ownership to crime at parcels shows a few owners have most of the parcels with crime, and much of the crime
Other Evidence. Observing the business news, engaging in conversations with property owners and developers, and observing political forums (e.g., city council discussions) provides more evidence
 • The existence and success of property developers, property management firms, and city planning offices
 • Discussions and debates over development and large-scale uses of land documented in regulatory agency records and in news reports
 • Talking to people who operate places about their employer's expectations
 • Books and articles on the history of areas focusing on architecture, property law, racial segregation, prominent buildings, and infrastructure