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Table 1 A Comparison of the NREC to NOPE Frameworks

From: Say NOPE to social disorganization criminology: the importance of creators in neighborhood social control

Characteristic Neighborhood Resident Emergent Control (NREC) Neighborhood Out of Places Explanation (NOPE)
Area unit
(i.e., neighborhood)
Natural real area. Principle subject of theory. Most important unit of analysis Institutionally created and not natural. An arbitrary artifact of interest groups
Place unit
(i.e., property parcel)
Usually overlooked. When addressed, it is a component of areas Locus of control. Principle subject of theory. Important unit of analysis. Frequent point of policy interventions
Principle actors Residents Place managers (owners and operators of places)
Role of residents Active and essential Largely passive adaptors to circumstances created by others
Sources of authority and control Collective opinion and actions of residents Property rights of place managers based in law
Outside influences Largely unexplained large-scale social forces Governments, businesses, real estate, and financial institutions that see their interests advanced by the uses of land and property
Policy Few tangible implications that can produce reliable results and are evidence-based A variety of implications for altering the management of places, with considerable supporting evidence of reliable results