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Table 5 Public sector sources included in this scoping review

From: Cryptocurrencies and future financial crime

Author Date Publication type Scientific discipline Data Data analysis method Cryptocurrency technology Fraud types Fraud definitions
Advertising Standards Authority and Committees of Advertising Practice (2019) Report Advertising Anecdotal N/A N/A Unspecified fraud Not reported
Australian Competition & Consumer Commission (2018) Report Trade regulation Scams reported to the ACCC N/A Bitcoin, Ether Fake ICOs, pyramid schemes, ransomware, other scams Fully reported
Australian Competition & Consumer Commission (2020) Report Trade regulation Scams reported to the ACCC and data from other Australian government agencies N/A Bitcoin, Ethereum, DSH, Ripple, Litecoin, EOS Investment scams / Ponzi schemes, cloud mining cryptocurrency scams, celebrity endorsement scams Fully reported
Capobianco, U.S. Department of Justice (to OECD) (2019) Memorandum Legal Court cases N/A Bitcoin High yield investment programme, mining scam, cryptojacking, Not reported
Elder & Rotunda, Texas State Securities Board (2018) Report Financial Services Investigations conducted Descriptive analysis / N/A Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Ripple, Potcoin, Dogecoin, My Big Coin, Ponzicoin, Bitconnect Coins, DavorCoin, R2B Unspecified fraud, high yield investment programme, fraudulent securities offerings Not reported
Elwell et al., Congressional Research Service (2014) Report Legislative Court case N/A Bitcoin Unspecified fraud, Ponzi scheme Not reported
FSMA Belgium (2020) Alert Financial Services Consumer complaints N/A N/A High yield investment programme, unspecified fraud not reported
Garg et al., Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, India (2019) Report and Bill Finance Anecdotal evidence, other studies N/A Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Cardano, Zerocoin (not mentioned in connection with fraud specifically) Ponzi schemes, phishing, price manipulation Not reported
HM Treasury, Financial Conduct Authority, Bank of England (2018) Report Financial services Qualitative consumer research, Action Fraud data N/A Bitcoin Manipulation and market abuse, unspecified fraud, High yield investment programmes, fraudulent ICOs, cryptojacking, false signals of supply and demand (like wash trading, layering, spoofing), pump-and-dumps Fully reported
Leuz (to U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission) (2018) Policy brief Financial Services Anecdotal N/A Proof of Weak Hands Coin Pump-and-dumps, Ponzi scheme Not reported
Lockhart & Nuesser, Innovative Research Group, Inc. (Report to Ontario Securities Commission) (2018) Report Financial Services Survey, anecdotal evidence Descriptive statistics Bitcoin, Ether, Litecoin, Bitcoin Cash, Ripple (in terms of ownership, not fraud) ICO fraud Not reported
Malta Financial Services Authority (2019) Alert Financial Services Anecdotal N/A N/A Unspecified fraud Not reported
Manojlovic, Vancouver Police Department (2019) Report and Resolutions Law Enforcement Police data N/A Bitcoin Income tax scam (phishing style but referred to as above), other scams Not reported
Nelson, Congressional Research Service (2019) Testimony Legislative Other studies N/A N/A (lots of cryptocurrencies discussed but not in context of fraud) ICO scams Not reported
NHS National Services Scotland (2020) Intelligence Alert Healthcare Anecdotal evidence N/A Bitcoin COVID-related scams, cryptojacking, high yield investment programme, phishing, malware Partially reported
Scott, Congressional Research Service (2020) Report Legislative Court cases N/A Bitcoin Unfair and deceptive acts, unspecified fraud Not reported
Securities and Exchange Commission Philippines (2020) Alert Financial Services Anecdotal evidence N/A N/A Ponzi scheme Fully reported