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Table 4 Private sector sources included in this scoping review

From: Cryptocurrencies and future financial crime

Author

Date

Publication type

Scientific discipline

Data

Data analysis method

Cryptocurrency technology

Fraud Types

Fraud definitions

Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP

(2018)

Alert

Law

Court case

N/A

N/A

Unspecified fraud, Ponzi schemes, market manipulation

Not reported

Bolster

(2019)

Report

Artificial intelligence/cybersecurity

Anecdotal evidence

N/A

Libra, Cybertruck

Counterfeiting, fishing, fake ICOs, scam giveaways and discount scams

Partially reported

Burrus, Refinitiv

(2018)

Article

Financial services

Anecdotal evidence

N/A

Bitcoin

Fake ICOs, Ponzi schemes, pump-and-dumps

Partially reported

Chainalysis

(2020)

Report

Fintech

Global Crypto Adoption Index for all countries using analytics from SimilarWeb, data from LocalBitcoins and Paxful

'Global Crypto Adoption Index'

BCH, BTC, ETH, LTC, OMG, PAX, USDC, USD

Investment scams, other scams

Not reported

Chainalysis

(2019)

Report

Fintech

Ethereum addresses and users

N/A

Ethereum

Phishing schemes, Ponzi, ICO exit scams

Fully reported

Chernin et al., Cornerstone

(2020)

Report

Law

Court cases

N/A

Bitcon, Litecoin, My Big Coin, ATM Coin, CompCoin

Unspecified fraud, Ponzi schemes, CPO/CTA Fraud, options fraud, forex fraud, wash trading

Not reported

Ciphertrace

(2018)

Report

Fintech

Anecdotal evidence (other data was used for money laundering but for the actual fraud ones it was just anecdotal)

N/A

Ethereum

Spear phishing, SIM swapping, Ponzi schemes, fake ICOs

Partially reported

Cohen & Crance, Schnader Harrison Segal & Lewis LLP

(2018)

Article

Law

Court cases

N/A

Bitcoin

ICO fraud, unspecified fraud

Not reported

Coulter, Burr Forman LLP

(2018)

Alert

Law

Court case

N/A

N/A

Unspecified fraud

Not reported

Crowell & Moring

(2018)

Alert

Law

Court case

N/A

My Big Coin

Unspecified fraud

Not reported

Desai et al., Accenture

(2019)

Report

Consulting

Threats reported to Retail & Hospitality ISAC

N/A

Bitcoin, Ethereum

Scams, cryptocurrency mining malware, ICO scams

Not reported

Devonshires

(2018)

Report

Law

Court case

N/A

Bitcoin

Forex fraud

Not reported

Eversheds Sutherland

(2018)

Report

Law

Court case and anecdotal evidence

N/A

N/A

Securities fraud

Not reported

Financial Integrity Network

(2018)

Alert

Investigations and Compliance

Loss estimates from other source

N/A

Bitcoin, Monero, Dash, Counterparty, Ethereum, Openledger

ICO scams

Not reported

Global Blockchain Business Council / Accenture

(2020)

Report

Fintech

Court cases and statistics from other organisations

N/A

T-Chits, Bitcoin

Unspecified fraud, ICO fraud, phishing

Not reported

Goodlett, DLA Piper

(2020)

Article

Law

Court cases

N/A

N/A

High yield investment programme, unspecified fraud, mining scam

Not reported

Halverson, Mclean Roche Consulting

(2020)

Report (to Australian government)

Financial Services

Anecdotal evidence

N/A

Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Litecoin, Tehter, Bitcoin Cash, Libra, Monero, EOS, Bitcoin SV, Binance Coin,

Unspecified fraud, Ponzi scheme

Not reported

Hedrich et al., Marsh & McLennan Companies

(2018)

Report

Consulting

Anecdotal evidence

N/A

N/A

Unspecified fraud

Not reported

Insikt Group, Recorded Future

(2018)

Report

Security intelligence

IP addresses, social media profiles, case studies

N/A

Marine Chain, Interstellar / Stellar / HOLD / HUZU

Scams

Not reported

Krone, et al.

(2018)

Article

Law

Court cases and anecdotal evidence

N/A

Bitcoin, Monero

ICO scam, unspecified fraud, phishing, exchange scams, credential stuffing, pump-and-dumps, cryptojacking

Fully reported

LIFARS

(2018)

Article

Cybersecurity

Anecdotal evidence

N/A

Ethereum (Prodeum)

ICO scam

Not reported

Lim et al., Debevoise & Plimpton

(2019)

Report

Law

Court cases

N/A

N/A

Unspecified fraud, ICO fraud

Not reported

Lucking and Aravind, Allen & Overy LLP

(2019)

Chapter

Law

Court case and anecdotal evidence

N/A

Bitcoin

Thief impersonating federal employee, Ponzi scheme, unspecified fraud, pyramid scheme

Not reported

Mabille, FINATIC

(2020)

Report

FinTech

Anecdotal evidence

N/A

Bitcoin

Price suppression/ manipulation by whales, unspecified fraud, impersonation of celebrities, phishing

Not reported

Malyshev, et al., Reed Smith

(2018)

Article

Law

Court cases

N/A

Bitcoin

Unspecified fraud and manipulation, 'issuing false account statements in connection with soliciting investments in Bitcoin)

Not reported

McAvoy et al., Nixon Peabody

(2018)

Article

Law

Court case

N/A

Bitcoin

Ponzi scheme

Not reported

McGuire, Bromium

(2019)

Chapter

Cybersecurity

UK police data

N/A

Monero, Bitcoin

Cryptomining malware, ICO scams, Unspecified fraud

Fully reported

Musiala, et al., AICPA

(2020)

Report

Accounting

Court cases and anecdotal evidence

N/A

Bitcoin, Argyle Coin, PRO Currency, Libra,

Ponzi scheme, securities fraud, ICO scam, embezzlement, phishing, SIM swapping, dusting, mining malware, wire fraud, access device fraud, identity theft, ransomware

Partially reported

Parisi et al., Shearman & Sterling

(2018)

Article

Law

Court cases and anecdotal evidence

N/A

N/A

Commodity fraud

Not reported

PYMNTS.com / Tulioo

(2019)

Report

AML

Anecdotal evidence

N/A

Ripple, Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Ethereum, Litecoin

Unspecified fraud, phishing and malware, exploiting vulnerabilities (hardware, software, etc.), high yield investment programmes, SIM swapping

Partially reported

Reik, Sprott Asset Management

(2019)

Article

Financial Services

Anecdotal evidence

N/A

Bitcoin

Unspecified fraud, ICO scams, fake exchanges,

Not reported

Rochemont, Institute and Faculty of Actuaries

(2020)

Report

Accounting

Anecdotal evidence

N/A

Bitcoin, OneCoin, MingoCoin, DasCoin / GreenPower

Forex scams, Unspecified fraud, Ponzi schemes, cryptojacking, SIM swapping

Not reported

Shearman & Sterling

(2018)

Article

Law

Court cases

N/A

My Big Coin

Unspecified fraud

Not reported

Štefanko, ESET

(2018)

Research whitepaper / report

Cybersecurity

Anecdotal evidence

N/A

Ethereum, Ada (on Cardano blockchain), Bitcoin, Dash, Litecoin, Dogecoin, Bitcoin Cash, Bitcoin Gold, Ripple, Monero

Fake cryptocurrency exchange apps/ phishing apps, fake cryptocurrency wallet apps, crypto-mining malware/ cryptojacking, fake crypto miners and free giveaways

Partially reported

Webroot

(2018)

Whitepaper

Cybersecurity

Anecdotal evidence

N/A

Monero, Bitcoin

Cryptojacking, giveaway scams on social media, other crypto scams

Partially reported

Wright, Duo Security

(2018)

Report

Cybersecurity

Twitter data (used previous study for labelling)

Machine learning algorithms: AdaBoost, Logistic Regression, Decision Trees, Random Forest, Naïve Bayes

N/A

Crypto giveaway scam

Fully reported