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Table 4 Private sector sources included in this scoping review

From: Cryptocurrencies and future financial crime

Author Date Publication type Scientific discipline Data Data analysis method Cryptocurrency technology Fraud Types Fraud definitions
Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP (2018) Alert Law Court case N/A N/A Unspecified fraud, Ponzi schemes, market manipulation Not reported
Bolster (2019) Report Artificial intelligence/cybersecurity Anecdotal evidence N/A Libra, Cybertruck Counterfeiting, fishing, fake ICOs, scam giveaways and discount scams Partially reported
Burrus, Refinitiv (2018) Article Financial services Anecdotal evidence N/A Bitcoin Fake ICOs, Ponzi schemes, pump-and-dumps Partially reported
Chainalysis (2020) Report Fintech Global Crypto Adoption Index for all countries using analytics from SimilarWeb, data from LocalBitcoins and Paxful 'Global Crypto Adoption Index' BCH, BTC, ETH, LTC, OMG, PAX, USDC, USD Investment scams, other scams Not reported
Chainalysis (2019) Report Fintech Ethereum addresses and users N/A Ethereum Phishing schemes, Ponzi, ICO exit scams Fully reported
Chernin et al., Cornerstone (2020) Report Law Court cases N/A Bitcon, Litecoin, My Big Coin, ATM Coin, CompCoin Unspecified fraud, Ponzi schemes, CPO/CTA Fraud, options fraud, forex fraud, wash trading Not reported
Ciphertrace (2018) Report Fintech Anecdotal evidence (other data was used for money laundering but for the actual fraud ones it was just anecdotal) N/A Ethereum Spear phishing, SIM swapping, Ponzi schemes, fake ICOs Partially reported
Cohen & Crance, Schnader Harrison Segal & Lewis LLP (2018) Article Law Court cases N/A Bitcoin ICO fraud, unspecified fraud Not reported
Coulter, Burr Forman LLP (2018) Alert Law Court case N/A N/A Unspecified fraud Not reported
Crowell & Moring (2018) Alert Law Court case N/A My Big Coin Unspecified fraud Not reported
Desai et al., Accenture (2019) Report Consulting Threats reported to Retail & Hospitality ISAC N/A Bitcoin, Ethereum Scams, cryptocurrency mining malware, ICO scams Not reported
Devonshires (2018) Report Law Court case N/A Bitcoin Forex fraud Not reported
Eversheds Sutherland (2018) Report Law Court case and anecdotal evidence N/A N/A Securities fraud Not reported
Financial Integrity Network (2018) Alert Investigations and Compliance Loss estimates from other source N/A Bitcoin, Monero, Dash, Counterparty, Ethereum, Openledger ICO scams Not reported
Global Blockchain Business Council / Accenture (2020) Report Fintech Court cases and statistics from other organisations N/A T-Chits, Bitcoin Unspecified fraud, ICO fraud, phishing Not reported
Goodlett, DLA Piper (2020) Article Law Court cases N/A N/A High yield investment programme, unspecified fraud, mining scam Not reported
Halverson, Mclean Roche Consulting (2020) Report (to Australian government) Financial Services Anecdotal evidence N/A Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Litecoin, Tehter, Bitcoin Cash, Libra, Monero, EOS, Bitcoin SV, Binance Coin, Unspecified fraud, Ponzi scheme Not reported
Hedrich et al., Marsh & McLennan Companies (2018) Report Consulting Anecdotal evidence N/A N/A Unspecified fraud Not reported
Insikt Group, Recorded Future (2018) Report Security intelligence IP addresses, social media profiles, case studies N/A Marine Chain, Interstellar / Stellar / HOLD / HUZU Scams Not reported
Krone, et al. (2018) Article Law Court cases and anecdotal evidence N/A Bitcoin, Monero ICO scam, unspecified fraud, phishing, exchange scams, credential stuffing, pump-and-dumps, cryptojacking Fully reported
LIFARS (2018) Article Cybersecurity Anecdotal evidence N/A Ethereum (Prodeum) ICO scam Not reported
Lim et al., Debevoise & Plimpton (2019) Report Law Court cases N/A N/A Unspecified fraud, ICO fraud Not reported
Lucking and Aravind, Allen & Overy LLP (2019) Chapter Law Court case and anecdotal evidence N/A Bitcoin Thief impersonating federal employee, Ponzi scheme, unspecified fraud, pyramid scheme Not reported
Mabille, FINATIC (2020) Report FinTech Anecdotal evidence N/A Bitcoin Price suppression/ manipulation by whales, unspecified fraud, impersonation of celebrities, phishing Not reported
Malyshev, et al., Reed Smith (2018) Article Law Court cases N/A Bitcoin Unspecified fraud and manipulation, 'issuing false account statements in connection with soliciting investments in Bitcoin) Not reported
McAvoy et al., Nixon Peabody (2018) Article Law Court case N/A Bitcoin Ponzi scheme Not reported
McGuire, Bromium (2019) Chapter Cybersecurity UK police data N/A Monero, Bitcoin Cryptomining malware, ICO scams, Unspecified fraud Fully reported
Musiala, et al., AICPA (2020) Report Accounting Court cases and anecdotal evidence N/A Bitcoin, Argyle Coin, PRO Currency, Libra, Ponzi scheme, securities fraud, ICO scam, embezzlement, phishing, SIM swapping, dusting, mining malware, wire fraud, access device fraud, identity theft, ransomware Partially reported
Parisi et al., Shearman & Sterling (2018) Article Law Court cases and anecdotal evidence N/A N/A Commodity fraud Not reported / Tulioo (2019) Report AML Anecdotal evidence N/A Ripple, Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Ethereum, Litecoin Unspecified fraud, phishing and malware, exploiting vulnerabilities (hardware, software, etc.), high yield investment programmes, SIM swapping Partially reported
Reik, Sprott Asset Management (2019) Article Financial Services Anecdotal evidence N/A Bitcoin Unspecified fraud, ICO scams, fake exchanges, Not reported
Rochemont, Institute and Faculty of Actuaries (2020) Report Accounting Anecdotal evidence N/A Bitcoin, OneCoin, MingoCoin, DasCoin / GreenPower Forex scams, Unspecified fraud, Ponzi schemes, cryptojacking, SIM swapping Not reported
Shearman & Sterling (2018) Article Law Court cases N/A My Big Coin Unspecified fraud Not reported
Štefanko, ESET (2018) Research whitepaper / report Cybersecurity Anecdotal evidence N/A Ethereum, Ada (on Cardano blockchain), Bitcoin, Dash, Litecoin, Dogecoin, Bitcoin Cash, Bitcoin Gold, Ripple, Monero Fake cryptocurrency exchange apps/ phishing apps, fake cryptocurrency wallet apps, crypto-mining malware/ cryptojacking, fake crypto miners and free giveaways Partially reported
Webroot (2018) Whitepaper Cybersecurity Anecdotal evidence N/A Monero, Bitcoin Cryptojacking, giveaway scams on social media, other crypto scams Partially reported
Wright, Duo Security (2018) Report Cybersecurity Twitter data (used previous study for labelling) Machine learning algorithms: AdaBoost, Logistic Regression, Decision Trees, Random Forest, Naïve Bayes N/A Crypto giveaway scam Fully reported