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Table 3 Academic papers included in this scoping review

From: Cryptocurrencies and future financial crime

Author Date Publication Type Scientific Discipline Data Data Analysis Method Cryptocurrency Technology Fraud Types Fraud Definitions
Anderson et al. (2019) Report Computer science Court cases Descriptive statistics Bitcoin, Bitconnect, OneCoin, Monero Tether Fraudulent cryptocoins, Initial Coin Offering (ICO) scams, market manipulation, mining malware, Ponzi schemes Partially reported
Badawi & Jourdan (2020) Journal Article Engineering Other publications Systematic literature review Bitcoin, Ethereum, Monero General fraud, high yield investment programmes, pump-and-dumps, mining malware, phishing Partially reported
Badawi et al. (2020) Conference Paper Engineering Scam addresses Transaction analysis Bitcoin Mining scam Fully reported
Barnes (2018) Conference paper Accounting & finance Anecdotes N/A Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Tether ICO frauds, market manipulation, pump-and-dump schemes Partially reported
Bartoletti et al. (2018) Conference paper Computer science Transaction data Machine learning algorithm Bitcoin Ponzi scheme Fully reported
Bartoletti et al. (2017) Electronic pre-prints Computer science Transaction data Quantitative & qualitative analysis Ethereum Smart Ponzi schemes Fully reported
Baum (2018) Thesis Accounting & Finance Anecdotes N/A Billion coin, Bitcoin, Bitconnect, Bitfinex, Diamond Reserve Club, Ethereum, Giza, LoopX, Opair, PlexCoin, PonziCoin, REcoin, Tether Exit scheme during or after ICO, fake ICO scheme, Ponzi schemes, pump-and-dump schemes Fully reported
Boshmaf et al. (2019) Conference Paper Computer science Transaction data BlockTag which uses vertical crawlers and clustering Bitcoin Ponzi scheme Partially reported
Boshmaf et al. (2020) Conference Paper Computer Science User and service data Linking accounts, and calculating monetary flows Bitcoin but can be used on Litecoin, Namecoin, and Zcash and Others; MMM Ponzi scheme Ponzi scheme Partially reported
Chen et al. (2020b) Conference Paper Computer science Smart contracts Machine learning model, LightGBM Ethereum Smart contracts honeypots Fully reported
Chen et al. (2020a) Conference Paper Computer science Transaction records Graph-based cascade feature extraction and lightGBM, a 'Dual-sampling Ensemble algorithm’ Ethereum Phishing Fully reported
Chen et al. (2019a) Conference paper Accounting & finance; computer science Transaction data Singular value decomposition Bitcoin Market manipulation Not reported
Chen et al. (2019b) Conference paper Computer science Transaction data Improved Apriori Algorithm Bitcoin Pump-and-dump scheme Fully reported
Chen et al. (2018a) Conference paper Economics Accounts and operation codes Classification model Ethereum Smart Ponzi scheme Fully reported
Chen et al. (2019d) Journal article Computer science Transaction data and operation codes Classification model Ethereum Smart Ponzi scheme Fully reported
Conley et al. (2015) Report Law & legal studies Anecdotes N/A Bitcoin Mining malware Not reported
Crowley (2018) Thesis Law & legal studies Anecdotes N/A Bitcoin Ponzi scheme Not reported
Dubois (2019) Thesis Forensic & applied sciences Survey Statistical analysis and thematic, qualitative analysis Bitcoin, Ethereum, Monero, Bitcoin Cash, Litecoin, Ripple, Dash, EOS, Dogecoin, Zcash, Cardano, Stellar, NEO, Scotcoin, Bitcoin Gold, Populous General fraud Fully reported
Duff et al. (2018) Report Law & legal studies Anecdotes N/A AriseCoin, ATM Coin, Bitcoin, Bitshares, BitUSD, CTR Tokens, Dogecoin, Litecoin, My Big Coin, REcoin ICO scams Not reported
Eastham (2020) Journal Article Law Anecdotal evidence N/A Tezos ICO ICO scam Not reported
Gandal et al. (2018) Journal article Economics Transaction data Regression analysis Bitcoin Price manipulation Not reported
Gao et al. (2020) Electronic pre-print Computer science Advertisements Descriptive, lexical, popularity, and graphical analysis of creators and token holders; computational detection of airdrop scams Ethereum Counterfeit currency, airdrop scam, arbitrage scam Fully reported
Hays (2018) Report Law & legal studies Anecdotes N/A Bitcoin Ponzi scheme, market manipulation Not reported
Henning (2019) Thesis / Electronic Pre-Print Law Court cases N/A Bitcoin, Libra, Dash, Ripple, Bitcoin Cash, NEO, BLV (Blockvest) Token, Argyle Coin, OneCoin, My Big Coins, PayCoin, Ethereum, Kin tokens, Grams Wire fraud, securities fraud, Ponzi scheme, ICO scam, general fraud Partially reported
Jiaying (2020) Electronic pre-print Law Case study N/A Ethereum, Qtum ICO scams, pyramid schemes Fully reported
Jung et al. (2019) Conference Paper Computer Science, mathematics Addresses Weka, various classification algorithms—J48 decision tree, random forest, stochastic gradient descent Ethereum Ponzi schemes Not reported
Kethineni et al. (2019) Journal article Law & legal studies News reports & magazines Content analysis Bitcoin, Monero Ponzi scheme Not reported
Lašas et al. (2020) Conference Paper Mathematics Information from wallets and transactions K-means clustering, SVM, random forest classifier Ethereum General fraud Not reported
Liu et al. (2020) Electronic pre-print Media and communications, computer science, engineering Other literature, anecdotal evidence N/A Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Dogecoin, Zerocash, Monero, Zerocoin, Zcash, Dash, Cryptonote, Bytecoin, DigitalNote, Namecoin, Huntercoin, Myriadcoin, Unobtanium Ponzi scheme, market manipulation, phishing, unspecified fraud Partially reported
Murko & Vrhovec (2019) Conference Paper Criminal justice and security Online surveys Statistical analyses Bitcoin Exchange scams, wallet scams, Ponzi scheme, mining scams Fully reported
Murphy et al. (2015) Report Law & legal studies Anecdotes N/A Bitcoin Ponzi scheme Not reported
Najmy (2019) Journal Article Law Anecdotal evidence N/A Bitcoin ICO scam Fully reported
Navarro (2019) Thesis Financial crime and compliance Anecdotal evidence N/A Blockvest, BtCrush, Bitcoin, Etherum, Ringgold Identity theft, phishing, romance scams, ICO scams Fully reported
Ngai (2014) Thesis Law & legal studies Anecdotes N/A Bitcoin Pump-and-dump scheme Not reported
Nilsen (2019) Thesis Computer science Exchange data Anomaly detection algorithm (Limelight) GXS, Ethereum, Bitcoin, and various others (280 total anomalies detected for coins paired with BTC, some not specifically mentioned in paper) Pump-and-dumps Fully reported
Phan et al. (2019) Journal Article Computer science Tweets Descriptive analysis, sentiment analysis, influence analysis Bitcoin, Pincoin, Arisebank, Savedroid Ponzi scheme, ICO scams, smart contract attacks, selfish mining Fully reported
Phillips and Wilder (2020) Electronic pre-print (Conference Paper) Computer science Scam websites DBSCAN clustering Bitcoin and Ethereum Advance fee fraud, phishing Fully reported
Podgor (2019) Electronic pre-print Law Court case N/A Bitcoin, Etherum, ReCoin, Diamond Securities fraud, unspecified fraud Not reported
Pryzmont (2016) Thesis Business Anecdotes N/A Bitcoin Fraudulent exchanges (service scam), Ponzi scheme Fully reported
Reddy, et al. (2018) Journal article Criminology Anecdotes N/A Bitcoin Ponzi scheme Fully reported
Rognone et al. (2020) Journal Article Business Trading data, RavenPack News Analytics VAR-X model Bitcoin General fraud Not reported
Samsudeen, et al. (2019) Journal article Computer science Transaction data N/A Bitcoin Fake agencies, scams involving exchanges Fully reported
Șcheau et al. (2020) Journal article Computer science; economics Anecdotal evidence N/A Bitcoin, Pincoin, Plexcoin, IBCoin, Nelunx, Ruby-X, EOS, XRP, Ethereum, Litecoin, BitcoinCash, PlusToken ICO Scams, unspecified fraud, imposter websites/apps, email scams, fake currencies, phishing, high yield investment programme, wash trading, fake wallets Not reported
Semenihin, et al. (2018) Conference paper Accounting & finance; law & legal studies Anecdotes N/A Bitcoin Cheating with electronic mailings, deception with cryptocurrency wallets, false ICO, non-real cryptocurrencies exchange stock Not reported
Sureshbhai et al. (2020) Conference Paper Computer science Elliptic dataset Sentiment analysis, long-short term memory classifier Bitcoin General fraud Not reported
Torres, et al. (2019) Electronic pre-print Computer science Smart contracts Systematic analysis Ethereum Honeypot Fully reported
Toyoda et al. (2019a) Journal Article Computer science Bitcoin addresses Supervised machine learning classifier Bitcoin High yield investment programme Fully reported
Toyoda, et al. (2018) Conference paper Computer science Transaction data Transaction history summarization Bitcoin High yield investment programme Fully reported
Toyoda, et al. (2019b) Conference paper Computer science Transaction data Time series analysis Bitcoin High yield investment programme Fully reported
Toyoda, et al. (2017) Conference paper Computer science Transaction data Transactions pattern analysis Bitcoin High yield investment programme Fully reported
ur Rehman et al. (2020) Journal Article Computer science Other literature Systematic literature review Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Bitcoin Cash, EOS, Stellar, Litecoin, Tether, Bitcoin SV, Tron, Zcash, Monero, Dash Market manipulation, insider trading, ICO scams, pump-and-dumps Partially reported
Vasek (2017) Thesis Computer science Transaction data Descriptive analysis Bitcoin Exchange scam, high yield investment programme, mining scam, scam wallet Fully reported
Vasek, et al. (2015) Conference paper Computer science Transaction data Descriptive analysis Bitcoin Exchange scam, high yield investment programme, mining scam, scam wallet Fully reported
Vasek, et al. (2018) Conference paper Computer science Scammer and victim interactions Survival analysis Bitcoin Ponzi scheme Not reported
Vrazel (2019) Journal Article Law Anecdotal evidence N/A Denaro, Pluto Coin, LoopX, PlexCorps ICO scams, phishing Not reported
Waxenbaum (2019) Electronic pre-prints Law & legal studies Anecdotes N/A AriseCoin, Bitcoin, Bitshares, BitUSD, Dogecoin, Etherium, Litecoin Fraudulent ICO Not reported
Weber et al. (2020) Conference Paper Computer science Case studies N/A Red Pulse Token, Bee Token, Minerium Token Social engineering (highly focused on phishing, but also includes pretexting, baiting), smart contract honeypots Partially reported
Wu et al (2020) Journal Article Computer Science Phishing addresses trans2vec network embedding algorithm, one-class SVM Ethereum Phishing, ICO scams Fully reported
Xia et al. (2020b) Journal Article Computer science Scam domains and fake apps Analysis of landing page source code and screenshots, VirusTotal labelling, Google Cloud Natural Language API, Vision API, descriptive analysis, clustering, monetary flows analysis Not specified Exchange scams Partially reported
Xia et al. (2020a) Electronic pre-print Computer science Scams Descriptive statistics and analysis, transaction analysis CoronaCoin, COVID19 Coin, ICO scams, giveaway scams, blackmail scams, malware scams, Ponzi scheme, donation scams Partially reported
Xie (2019) Journal article Law & legal studies Anecdotes N/A Bitcoin Ponzi scheme Not reported
Yuan et al. (2020) Conference Paper Computer science Phishing addresses and transaction data Network embedding method node2vec and SVM classifier Ethereum Phishing scams Fully reported
Zetzsche, et al. (2017) Report Law & legal studies Anecdotes N/A Bitcoin Fraudulent ICO, Ponzi scheme Not reported