Skip to main content

Table 3 Examples of situational crime prevention intervention strategies to tiger poaching and trafficking

From: Using crime script analysis to elucidate the details of Amur tiger poaching in the Russian Far East

Increase effort

Increase risk

Reduce rewards

Reduce provocations

Remove excuses

Target harden


Extend guardianship

Increase ranger patrols outside of protected areas (possibly using community groups)

Set up cameras at entrance of secondary logging roads

Conceal targets


Reduce frustrations/stress

Develop alternative legal and sustainable wildlife/ natural resource economies

Pay hunters a winter stipend to reduce need for poaching revenues

Pay communities for proof of tiger presence (camera traps with date stamp)

Pay communities to assist with reforest old logging roads

Set rules


Control access to facilities

 Encourage forest regeneration programs to reduce presence of logging roads

 Prohibit construction of new roads as much as possible

 Restrict access to secondary/logging roads

 Close forest roads at night

 Increase PA coverage

Assist natural surveillance

Incentivize citizens to report suspicious behavior or vehicles parked on the side of the road at night

System of anonymous tipping to turn poachers in (with reward incentive)

Remove targets


Avoid disputes

Mitigate human-wildlife conflict in rural villages, including compensation programs for tigers killing livestock/domestic animals

Standardize livestock reporting losses to ensure livestock reimbursement programs

Post instructions

Signs in hunting leases saying it is against the law to hunt what you do not possess a permit for

Screen exists

 Increase roadblocks and vehicle checks at night, especially at the confluence of main roads and secondary/logging roads

Reduce anonymity

Publicize arrest and conviction of poachers

Automated (or manual) number plate readers at key access points

Identify property

Use camera trapping to keep records of individual tigers to compare against seizures (although they don’t use the skins)

Better accounting of tiger carcasses that are killed in human/wildlife disputes

Reduce temptation/arousal

Develop community programs to build dog kennels to reduce dog mortality by tiger

Corrals/fences to prevent livestock depredation, especially in winter (reduce free ranging livestock)

Alert conscience

Signs in villages describing fine/jail time associated with tiger poaching

Deflect offenders

 Increase wages of wildlife rangers to deter bribery

 Increase wages of custom officials at Chinese border as to deter bribery

 Rotate personnel to limit impact of corruption

Use place managers

Pressure hunting lease managers to better monitor and track sell of hunting permits

Disrupt markets

Demand reduction campaign in China

Increase enforcement efforts at Russian/Chinese border

Neutralize peer pressure

Generate social pressure against poaching through outreach programs

Increase effort to stigmatize tiger poaching

Link tigers to culture pride/heritage

Anti-corruption units to minimize corruption in police culture

Assist compliance


Control tools/weapons

 Make hunting licenses more difficult to acquire

 Better accounting for hunting licenses sold and what is subsequently killed

 Stricter controls on firearms including more randomized weapon and license checks

 Stricter border control and monitoring on the importation of heat vision goggles from China

Strengthen formal surveillance

Increase ranger patrols to two officers to discourage intimidation

Encourage detecting suspicious foot paths in remote forest areas

Increase patrol efforts and roadblocks on main roads to Ussuriysk

Increase ranger patrols at night and in winter

Increase police presence and raids in Ussuriysk

Deny benefits

Maximize efforts to enforce fines and prosecution of poachers

Discourage imitation

Increase conviction rate of arrested poachers

Increase fines

Control drugs/alcohol