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Table 3 Examples of situational crime prevention intervention strategies to tiger poaching and trafficking

From: Using crime script analysis to elucidate the details of Amur tiger poaching in the Russian Far East

Increase effort Increase risk Reduce rewards Reduce provocations Remove excuses
Target harden
Extend guardianship
Increase ranger patrols outside of protected areas (possibly using community groups)
Set up cameras at entrance of secondary logging roads
Conceal targets
Reduce frustrations/stress
Develop alternative legal and sustainable wildlife/ natural resource economies
Pay hunters a winter stipend to reduce need for poaching revenues
Pay communities for proof of tiger presence (camera traps with date stamp)
Pay communities to assist with reforest old logging roads
Set rules
Control access to facilities
 Encourage forest regeneration programs to reduce presence of logging roads
 Prohibit construction of new roads as much as possible
 Restrict access to secondary/logging roads
 Close forest roads at night
 Increase PA coverage
Assist natural surveillance
Incentivize citizens to report suspicious behavior or vehicles parked on the side of the road at night
System of anonymous tipping to turn poachers in (with reward incentive)
Remove targets
Avoid disputes
Mitigate human-wildlife conflict in rural villages, including compensation programs for tigers killing livestock/domestic animals
Standardize livestock reporting losses to ensure livestock reimbursement programs
Post instructions
Signs in hunting leases saying it is against the law to hunt what you do not possess a permit for
Screen exists
 Increase roadblocks and vehicle checks at night, especially at the confluence of main roads and secondary/logging roads
Reduce anonymity
Publicize arrest and conviction of poachers
Automated (or manual) number plate readers at key access points
Identify property
Use camera trapping to keep records of individual tigers to compare against seizures (although they don’t use the skins)
Better accounting of tiger carcasses that are killed in human/wildlife disputes
Reduce temptation/arousal
Develop community programs to build dog kennels to reduce dog mortality by tiger
Corrals/fences to prevent livestock depredation, especially in winter (reduce free ranging livestock)
Alert conscience
Signs in villages describing fine/jail time associated with tiger poaching
Deflect offenders
 Increase wages of wildlife rangers to deter bribery
 Increase wages of custom officials at Chinese border as to deter bribery
 Rotate personnel to limit impact of corruption
Use place managers
Pressure hunting lease managers to better monitor and track sell of hunting permits
Disrupt markets
Demand reduction campaign in China
Increase enforcement efforts at Russian/Chinese border
Neutralize peer pressure
Generate social pressure against poaching through outreach programs
Increase effort to stigmatize tiger poaching
Link tigers to culture pride/heritage
Anti-corruption units to minimize corruption in police culture
Assist compliance
Control tools/weapons
 Make hunting licenses more difficult to acquire
 Better accounting for hunting licenses sold and what is subsequently killed
 Stricter controls on firearms including more randomized weapon and license checks
 Stricter border control and monitoring on the importation of heat vision goggles from China
Strengthen formal surveillance
Increase ranger patrols to two officers to discourage intimidation
Encourage detecting suspicious foot paths in remote forest areas
Increase patrol efforts and roadblocks on main roads to Ussuriysk
Increase ranger patrols at night and in winter
Increase police presence and raids in Ussuriysk
Deny benefits
Maximize efforts to enforce fines and prosecution of poachers
Discourage imitation
Increase conviction rate of arrested poachers
Increase fines
Control drugs/alcohol