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Table 2 Crime script for poaching and trafficking Amur tigers, with possible intervention techniques

From: Using crime script analysis to elucidate the details of Amur tiger poaching in the Russian Far East

Stage Steps Spatial Temporal People Intervention
Preparation Hunter decides to poach a tiger and has connection with a local buyer in advance (usually poachers also sell legal game to their established buyer)
OR local buyer receives order from further down supply chain (Chinese buyer/regional buyer) and actively recruits a poacher
Obtain heat vision goggles or a spotlight if cannot afford goggles
Recruit co-offenders
Gain access to vehicle (4 × 4 and preferably 2 vehicles)
Buy license to hunt (for any legal species) so a firearm can be legally purchased and possessed
Buy camera traps (if not using a vehicle). Learn movements of tigers after compiling photos (Sometimes this information is sold directly to buyer who will pay for coordinates)
License purchased in hunting lease (poacher can be a ‘member’ of a specific hunting lease or can pay more to hunt as a non-member
Rural villages
Goggles purchased from China
Cameras traps purchased from China or the US
Anytime Hunting lease manager
Poacher(s)
Local buyer
Make hunting licenses more difficult to acquire
Better accounting for game licenses sold and what is subsequently killed
Stricter controls on firearms including more randomized weapon checks by ranger patrols
Stricter border control and monitoring on the importation of heat vision goggles from China
Mitigate human-wildlife conflict in rural villages
Link tigers to culture pride/heritage
Encourage anonymous reporting of poaching pre- activities
Generate social pressure against poaching through outreach programs
Pay communities for camera trap evidence of tiger presence
Pre-activity Driving on roads, both main roads and secondary roads
Spotlighting or using heat vision goggles
Lie in wait in a hide up to a few days in a pre-established location
Outside of protected areas, usually hunting leases
PAs (more rare)
Roads, including primary roads and secondary roads, usually logging roads
Usually in winter
Night
Poacher(s)- usually groups of poachers in two separate cars Encourage forest regeneration programs to reduce presence of logging roads
Prohibit construction of new roads as much as possible
Set up camera traps at entrance of secondary logging roads
Increase ranger patrols to two officers to discourage intimidation
Increase ranger patrols at night
Increase ranger patrols outside of protected areas
Activity Shoot tiger from car on road
If necessary, follow tiger into forest, shoot again
Or shoot tiger from hidden location
Outside of protected areas, usually hunting leases
PAs (more rare)
Roads, including primary roads and secondary roads, usually logging roads
As quick as possible
Night
Usually in the winter
Poacher(s) Increase ranger patrols at night
Increase ranger patrols outside of protected areas
Incentivize citizens to report suspicious behavior or vehicles parked on the side of the road at night
Pay hunters a winter stipend to reduce need for poaching revenues
Post-activity Call local buyer to give GPS coordinates for buyer pick up in forest
OR transfer entire carcass to car
OR process carcass on site, take desired parts, burn skin
Leave scene
Deliver processed parts or entire carcass to local buyer if delivery has been pre-determined
OR drive carcass to Ussuriysk if poacher wants to take the risk for more money and has a connection with a regional buyer
Local buyer drives products to regional hub and sells to regional buyer
Regional buyer organizes and bribes appropriate people to smuggle goods over Chinese border
Smuggler crosses border on a pre-determined date
Location of kill
Local village
Roads
Ussuriysk (or Arsenyev/Blagoveshchensk)
Blagoveshchensk/Heine, Kraskino, Poltavka, Pogranichny/Suifenne, Turiy Rog
Products usually stockpiled by local buyer and a specific day of transport is arranged with regional buyer in Ussuriysk
Transfer can be any time of year, but more frequently in the winter
Poacher
Local buyer
Regional buyer
Smuggler
Custom agents
Increase wages of wildlife rangers to deter bribery
Rotate personnel to limit impact of corruption
Increase effort to arrest and convict poachers
System of anonymous tipping to turn poachers in (possibly with reward incentive)
Increase patrol efforts and roadblocks on main roads to Ussuriysk
Increase wages of custom officials at Chinese border as an incentive to not accept bribes
Increase roadblocks/ vehicle checks at night
Encourage detecting suspicious foot paths in remote forest areas