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Table 3 Product-based crime script for production of jaguar paste from live animals with associated responses

From: The production of jaguar paste in Suriname: a product-based crime script

Stages Steps Potential responsea
Procure Find and kill jaguar (see Table 2) Increase forest patrols
Mitigate human-wildlife conflict
Embed wildlife ranger in mining/logging camps
Link conservation education to cultural beliefs about jaguars
Stricter controls on weapons possession in reserves and logging/mining concessions
Regular checks along logging/mining roads
Broker Contact local Chinese shopkeeper or roving buyer (Chinese/Filipino) to sell carcass
Contact person who ordered hunt
Encourage natural surveillance by citizens to report carcasses (i.e. see something, say something)
Encourage natural surveillance by citizens to report roving buyers
Broker (2) Store carcass in small urban
Identify paste processor in Paramaribo
Encourage natural surveillance by citizens to report carcasses (i.e. see something, say something)
Transport Move carcass to Paramaribo for processing, switching cars along the way, using scout car to avoid law enforcement (late evening/early morning) Regular checks along roads linking forests and known transit settlements to Paramaribo
Combination overt/covert checks to identify cars turning around before check-points
Build list of suspicious vehicle involved in wildlife product movement
Purchase Sell carcass to processor Investigations to identify processor identity and workshop locations (possibly using tracking device on carcass)b
Process Boil carcass (meat, skin, bones) down into paste (5–7 days)
Sell teeth and claws to other dealer (may happen earlier)
Encourage residents and landlords to report strange smells that last several days
Monitor curio shops selling jaguar products
Package Put 500 g of paste into individual pots for sale; store in fridge or freezer Investigations to identify processors and their workshopsb
Sell Sell individual pots to members of the local Chinese community for use locally or for export Monitor WeChat groups for wildlife productsb
Regular checking of stores known for selling jaguar productsb
Demand-reduction campaign focused on embassy and in-country professional associationsb
Export Place containers in hand luggage and fly to China Better screening of hold/hand luggage to identify paste (strict enforcement of liquid/gel rules in hand luggage)
Look for large quantities of jars when screening luggage
Ask questions about tiger balm, wildlife products to identify suspicious persons
Import Get containers through Chinese customs Increased training to identify jaguar paste in regions known for importation (i.e. Zhejiang Province)
Build inter-agency network to connect enforcement units in source and demand countries
Resale Sell individual pots to local networks in China Demand-reduction campaignb
  1. aSustainable funding, combined with regular monitoring and evaluation, is needed for proper implementation given the limited resources currently available
  2. bThese responses will require personnel that can read, write and speak Cantonese/Mandarin