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Table 2 Indicators of pump-and-dumps per temporal dimension and indicator type

From: To the moon: defining and detecting cryptocurrency pump-and-dumps

  Temporal dimension
Real time indicators Post-pump indicators
Breakout indicators
Volume Has the volume at the current data point been significantly higher than in the estimation window? Was there a decline in volume after the event window where a pump was detected?
Price Has the price at the current data point been significantly higher than in the estimation window? Was there a decline in price after the event window where a pump was detected?
Reinforcers
Market cap Is the market cap of the coin relatively low? (+)
Number of exchanges Whether the coin is listed on multiple exchanges and the indicators only spike on one (+)
Whether the coin is listed on multiple exchanges and the indicators spike on multiple exchanges (neutral)
Whether the coin is not listed on multiple exchanges (+)
Symbol pair Whether the coin is trading for BTC or some other cryptocurrency (+)
Whether the coin is trading for USD or some other fiat currency (−)
  1. A (+) denotes an increase in confidence for a pump, while a (−) denotes a decrease in confidence. A symbol pair is a term used to denote which currency is trading for which, thus BTC/USD is a symbol pair representing that Bitcoin is being traded for US dollars