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Table 3 Multivariate fixed effects (firth-type penalized likelihood) estimates of relation between victimization and situational elements (odds ratios)

From: Is travel actually risky? A study of situational causes of victimization

Activity (sleeping = ref.)
 Public transport 27.576***
 Private transport by car 4.290
 Private transport open-air 26.676**
 Work 35.861***
 Education 8.507**
 Shopping/errands 108.541***
 Leisure 11.682***
 Other activity 10.987***
Time of day (midnight–6 a.m. = ref.)
 6 a.m.–noon .438
 Noon–6 p.m. .246**
 6 p.m.–midnight .333**
Substance use 14.314***
Friends present 1.864*
Partner or household member present 1.122
Children present 1.487
  1. * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001 (two-tailed)