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Table 1 Characteristics of studies in the meta-analysis

From: Ravenous wolves revisited: a systematic review of offending concentration

Characteristics Prevalence Frequency  
Number of studies Number of ordered pairs Number of studies Number of ordered pairs Number of studies included in both
Publication decade
 1950–1959 0 0 1 10 0
 1960–1969 0 0 0 0 0
 1970–1979 1 3 2 8 1
 1980–1989 3 26 9 105 3
 1990–1999 4 43 6 74 4
 2000–2009 6 80 8 88 4
 2010–2014 1 2 1 3 0
Type of offender
 Adult 3 34 7 71 2
 Youth 7 64 12 110 6
 Male 13 108 14 119 11
 Female 5 17 7 35 4
 United States 10 95 17 170 8
 Non-United Statesa, b 5 59 10 118 4
Studies analyzed 15 154 27 288  
(Studies identified) (55) (263) (44) (358)  
  1. aNon-US prevalence data included studies from: England (2), Denmark (1), Finland (1) and Puerto Rico (1)
  2. bNon-US frequency data included studies from: Australia (2), Canada (2), England (2), China (1), Denmark (1), Europe (1), and Puerto Rico (1)