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Table 1 Using situational crime prevention to reduce wildlife crime

From: Wildlife crime: a conceptual integration, literature review, and methodological critique

Increase the effort Increase the risk Reduce the rewards Reduce provocations Remove excuses
1. Harden target
Collars that allow escape from metal snares
6. Extend guardianship
WildScan, a mobile app, to report likely illegally sourced or poached animals in markets
“Bush Watch” schemes modeled after Neighborhood Watch programs
11. Conceal targets
Avoid providing location data for potential poachers
16. Reduce frustration and stress
Eco-tourism provides monetary incentives
Business alternatives
Boost availability of affordable legal fuel wood and introduce sustainable alternatives
21. Set rules
Making locals aware of laws and conservation objectives
Require third-party evidence of legal procurement for public timber purchases
2. Control access to facilities
Screening entrance points into PAs
Securing rhino horn and elephant ivory stockpiles
Docking protocol at ports to check for illegal fishing gear
7. Assist natural surveillance
Monetary rewards for whistleblowers who disclose wildlife law violations
Publicize contact information (e.g. “hotline”) for civic reports of wildlife offenses
12. Remove targets
Translocation of species
Dehorning
Tusk trimming
17. Avoid disputes
Relief schemes to compensate farmers for livestock killed
Road mitigation such as guardrail gaps and under/overpasses reduce wildlife-motorist conflict
22. Post instructions
“Protected area”
Road signage warning motorists of wildlife crossing zones
“Buyer beware” campaigns using billboards and social media to engage the public
3. Screen exits
Departure protocols at ports could include checks for illegal fishing gear
License plates recorded upon exit from PAs
Manned checkpoints and random investigations on forest area exit roads
8. Reduce anonymity
Ranger IDs
GPS devices for rangers and PA visitors so movement can be tracked
Log personnel who access data or evidence relating to wildlife investigations
13. Identify property
Branding legally sourced timber
Marking antique ivory
Identifying “captive-bred” animals as wild-caught based on health, behavior, and blood/stool tests
18. Reduce emotional arousal
Corrals/fences to prevent livestock predation
Educate herding communities about best practices
23. Alert conscience
Public awareness campaigns
Social marketing campaigns targeted to wildlife consumers and their networks
4. Deflect offenders
Road blockades for car/truck checks along roadways identified as wildlife trafficking routes
Automate customs checking systems documentation to reduce corruption
9. Utilize place managers
Trade show officials must report animals (and vendors selling them) identified as protected
Provide equipment, training, and mentoring for park guards
14. Disrupt markets
Monitoring markets
Increasing the availability/affordability of substitute protein (chicken, fish)
Surveillance of internet markets and advertisement websites
19. Neutralize peer pressure
Anti-corruption units and multi-agency taskforces to undermine corruption in police culture
Anonymous whistleblowing mechanisms to neutralize peer intimidation and coercion
24. Assist compliance
Accessible factsheets for tourists identifying region-specific illegal wildlife products
Plan tour routes and amenities to direct visitors away from at-risk areas
5. Control tools/weapons
Prohibiting the sale of fishing gear prone to by-catch
License system for timber processing facilities
10. Strengthen formal surveillance
Alarms in facilities that house ivory/rhino horn stockpiles
CITES identification Guides for state customs officials
Spatial monitoring and reporting tool (SMART)
15. Deny benefits
Disfiguring the carapaces of ploughshares tortoises
Dying rhino horn
Increase profitability of sustainable harvest through subsidiaries and tax reductions
20. Discourage imitation
Censure details of modus operandi
25. Control drugs and alcohol
N/A
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