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Table 2 Comparing developed and developing economies

From: Factors influencing the choice of a safe haven for offloading illegally caught fish: a comparative analysis of developed and developing economies

Variables Developed economiesa
n = 20
Developing economies or in transition
n = 52
Sig.b Effect size (r) N
Number of visits of IUU fishing vesselsc 5 3 0.366 0.17 72
Concealability      
Vessels in portc 407 52 0.000 0.50 71
% ports within top 125 ports in cargo volumec 15 % or less 0 0.023 0.23 72
Value fish importsc 1,390,025 97,636 0.000 0.51 72
Value fish exportsc 1,590,743 121,364 0.000 0.43 72
Convenience      
Marine species commercial internationally 15 5 0.011 0.27 71
Quality port infrastructure 5.26 3.89 0.000 0.57 60
Fisheries MCS      
Illegal fishing in the country’s waters 5.75 7.31 0.014 0.34 42
Catch inspection schemes 5.53 3.35 0.001 0.51 42
Observer schemes 4.69 2.08 0.000 0.55 42
Vessel monitoring schemes 5.75 3.40 0.003 0.44 42
Control of access to stop illegal fishing 4.56 3.35 0.032 0.29 42
Governance      
Political stability 0.68 −0.43 0.000 0.64 72
Government effectiveness 1.34 −0.27 0.000 0.79 72
Control of corruption 1.33 −0.39 0.000 0.76 72
Wildlife protection regulation      
# treaties and conventionsc 43 22 0.000 0.61 68
% marine protected areasc 14.05 2.75 0.000 0.42 70
Environmental sustainability 1.06 0.95 0.000 0.69 62
  1. Italic values indicate significant results
  2. For the purposes of this study, the term “economies” as used by the UN (2009) refers to “countries”
  3. aMeans are reported for all normally distributed continuous measures. Medians are reported for non-normally distributed continuous and ordinal measures
  4. bAll non-normally distributed continuous and ordinal measures: Mann–Whitney test (one-tailed; except “Number of visits of IUU fishing vessels”: two-tailed); normally distributed continuous measures: independent-samples T test (one-tailed)
  5. cNon-normally distributed variable