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Table 1 Comparing the SPAN STB interview and questionnaire on daily activities, offending and substance use

From: The space-time budget method in criminological research

  STB   Quest.   Correlations
  Mean SD Mean SD  
Daily activities      
How often do you eat evening meals with your parents?a 3.17 1.95 2.46 0.84 0.190*
How many times a week do you help your parents around the house (housekeeping, cooking, doing the dishes, buying groceries etc.)a 1.23 1.89 1.58 1.01 0.198*
About how much time do you spend on homework each day?b 2.27 3.09 1.39 0.78 0.465*
How often do friends visit you at home?a 2.61 7.39 0.99 0.81 0.278*
How often do you visit your friends at their house?a 3.61 6.93 1.09 0.74 0.314*
How often do you hang out with your friends in the street, on squares or parks?a 2.51 3.94 1.13 1.04 0.399*
How often do you hang out with your friends in a youth center or a sport club?a 1.73 2.92 0.70 0.83 0.388*
How often do you hang out with your friends in shopping malls or the city shopping center?a 0.60 1.49 0.87 0.84 0.226*
Offending 1      
How often in the past year have you damaged or destroyed something not belonging to you?c 0.03 0.23 0.55 0.87 0.161*
How often in the past year have you stolen something (from a shop, a bike or scooter)c 0.01 0.07 0.28 0.60 0.100*
How often in the past year have you beaten up somebody?c 0.04 0.22 0.61 1.15 0.193*
How often in the past year have you carried a knife or other weapon?c 0.48 4.30 0.51 1.26 0.294*
Substance use 1      
How often do you drink alcohol?d 1.33 3.22 1.08 1.16 0.685*
How often do you smoke hash or weed?d 0.31 1.76 0.34 0.80 0.603*
How often do you use other drugs, for example XTC, cocaine, speed or something else?d 0.23 1.42 0.06 0.33 0.332*
  1. *p < 0.01.
  2. a(Almost) every day (6–7 days a week); several times a week (3–5 days); few times a week (1–2 days); (almost) never; bNever; less than one hour a day; about 1–2 hours a day; more than 2 hours a day; cZero times; 1 time; 2 times; 3–5 times; 6–10 times; more than 10 times; dNever; less than once a month; once or a couple of times per month; once or a couple of times per week; (almost) every day. 1Analyses conducted on multiple imputed questionnaire items (imputation with Expectation-Maximization method).
  3. Legend: The table shows the results from Spearman’s correlations between STB interview items and questionnaire items on the SPAN sample in both waves (wave one and two combined N = 1456). The values of the STB items express hours per respondent over the four STB days (96 hours), whereas the values of the questionnaire items express respondents’ estimates of how often they are usually involved in daily activities, how often they use substances and how often they committed an offense in the past school year. Answer categories differ per questionnaire item (see notes below the Table). The SPAN data collection took place in The Hague (the Netherlands) and incorporated two waves of data collection. The first wave was in 2008–2009, the second in 2010–2011. Respondents were 11 to 17 years old and were approached through the secondary school they attended. The mean age of the sample was 14.1 in the first wave and 16.0 in the second; the combined sample consisted of approximately 53.9 percent boys and 46.1 percent girls. Adolescents with an ethnic minority background (45 percent) and adolescents who followed lower forms of secondary education were somewhat overrepresented in the sample compared to the Dutch adolescent population. Also, the respondents all had a highly urbanized background, because The Hague is the third largest city in the Netherlands.