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Table 2 Concepts used in the phishing definitions: χ 2 -tests are used to determine whether the frequency of use of a concept is significantly more or less than 50% of all definitions

From: Achieving a consensual definition of phishing based on a systematic review of the literature

Type Extracted concept Occurrence (N) χ 2 p  
Asset Mentioning information* 105 83.27 .00  
Actor Mentions a target* 87 44.61 .00  
Activity Phishing is digital* 87 32.93 .00  
Activity Phishing is Internet-based* 84 26.77 .00  
Activity Using deception* 79 17.92 .00  
Activity Communication from target to offender 64 1.99 .16  
Activity Communication from offender to target 62 1.07 .30  
Activity Phishing is a criminal activity 61 0.72 .40  
Activity Using impersonation 60 0.43 .51  
Activity Phishing uses websites 56 0.01 .93  
Activity Phishing uses messages 51 1.07 .30  
Actor Mentions a trusted third party 50 1.50 .22  
Activity Phishing is fraud* 43 6.45 .01  
Actor Mentions an offender* 40 9.64 .00  
Activity Using persuasion* 30 24.86 .00  
Activity Mentions the later abuse of information* 22 42.13 .00  
Activity Related to identity theft* 20 47.16 .00  
Activity Related to social engineering* 19 49.78 .00  
  1. χ2-test with df = 1. N = 113. Boldfaced concepts are included in standard. *p < 0.05.
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