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Table 1 The crime script for Internet-related criminal opportunities in wildlife trafficking

From: Wildlife trafficking in the Internet age

Stage Script category Action in which the internet has been used Criminal opportunity
Stage 0: preparatory activities antecedent to the commission of wildlife trafficking Crime lifestyle Discussion with other members of the criminal net-work about the existing relevant legislation (email) Communicative and managerial
Network lifestyle Maintenance of contacts with other members of the criminal network (email, Skype) Communicative and managerial
Lifestyle network Formation/existence of a criminal network (email, dedicated forums) Organizational and relational
Crime lifestyle network Discussion with criminal peers in order to exchange information on new potential buyers (email) Organizational and relational
Crime Identify the location of the animal/plant/product via GPS and web mapping services (e.g. Google Maps) Informational and technical
Lifestyle network Signal species that have been recently discovered/that are more rare and valuable (dedicated websites) Promotional
Stage 1: poaching, harvesting, or breeding of the animal/plant Network lifestyle Share information about the location of the animal/plant/product in its natural environment (dedicated blogs) Communicative and managerial
Crime lifestyle Agreement to send animals/plants/products via regu-lar mail among supplier and intermediaries (emails) Communicative and managerial
Crime lifestyle network Interaction with potential buyers (auction websites, generalist commercial websites, dedicated commer-cial websites, dedicated forums, reserved area in a website) Communicative and managerial; organizational and relational
Crime network Arrange sales of the specimen to intermediaries (international auction websites) Organizational and relational
Crime Buy traps and other instruments to poach animals (commercial websites, dedicated forums) Informational and technical
Stage 2: intermediate passage through local intermediaries/the domestic market Crime lifestyle Discussion with other members of the criminal network about how to ship animal/plant/product in small packages with deceptive labels when sending them through regular mail (email) Communicative and managerial
Crime Get information on relevant legislation Informational and technical
Stage 3: passage through regional intermediaries/international traders Crime lifestyle Discussion with other members of the criminal network about how to ship animal/plant/product in small packages with deceptive labels when sending them through regular mail (email) Communicative and managerial
Crime network Agreement to exclude local intermediaries who hesitate due to fear of prosecution over illegal activities (email) Organizational and relational
Crime network Arrange sales of the specimen to intermediaries (international auction websites) Organizational and relational
Crime lifestyle Advertise availability of new animals/plants/products (dedicated forums) Promotional
Stage 4: intermediate passage through local intermediaries/the domestic market Network lifestyle Share information about the location of the animal/plant/product in its natural environment (dedicated blogs) Communicative and managerial
Crime lifestyle Discuss prices/meeting places in the physical world to complete the deal (emails) Communicative and managerial
Crime lifestyle Discussion with other members of the criminal network about how to ship animal/plant/ product in small packages with deceptive labels when sending them through regular mail (email) Communicative and managerial
Crime lifestyle Agreement among criminal peers to physically meet and exchange animals/plants/products (private messaging in dedicated commercial websites, email) Communicative and managerial
Crime lifestyle Agreement to send animals/plants/products via regular mail among supplier/intermediaries (emails) Communicative and managerial
Crime Sell animals/plants/products on auction websites (e.g. eBay) Communicative and managerial
Crime lifestyle network Interaction with potential buyers (auction websites, generalist commercial websites, dedicated commer-cial websites, dedicated forums, reserved area in a website) Communicative and managerial; organizational and relational
Lifestyle network Forward emails from suppliers who can fulfill orders from potential customers (email) Communicative and managerial; organizational and relational
Lifestyle network Inform potential clients/intermediaries on updated prices (emails) Communicative and managerial; promotional
Stage 4: intermediate passage through local intermediaries/the domestic market (continued) Crime network Agreement to exclude local intermediaries who hesi-tate due to fear of prosecution over illegal activities (email) Organizational and relational
Network crime Search for new suppliers (emails, dedicated forums) Organizational and relational
Crime Arrange sales of the animal/plant/product to final buyers (international auction websites) Organizational and relational
Crime network Put costumers directly in contact with intermediaries or suppliers (emails) Organizational and relational
Crime Use of Google translator to post announcements in different languages Informational and technical
Crime Get information on specific species (on their morphology and on how to breed them) Informational and technical
Crime Get information on relevant legislation Informational and technical
Crime Automated sell of the animal/plant/product (order form on dedicated commercial website) Informational and technical
Crime Monitor the delivery via regular mail Informational and technical
Crime Payment (prepaid cards to be recharged online) Informational and technical
Crime lifestyle Contact directly consumers reassuring them that without documents the price is significantly lower (emails, dedicated forum) Persuasive
Crime lifestyle Discuss with potential customers the absence of required documentation (emails) Persuasive
Crime lifestyle Reassure customers about the quality of the animal/plant/product (commercial website, auction website) Persuasive
Crime lifestyle Attempt to cover the criminal act by claiming that animals/plants/products have been imported in the past with CITES certificates but they have been all given to others (dedicated website) Persuasive
Lifestyle network Advertising fairs and exhibitions (dedicated websites, dedicated forums) Promotional
Crime lifestyle Advertise availability of new animals/plants/products (dedicated forums) Promotional
Stage 5: distribution of the animal/plant/product Crime lifestyle Discuss prices/meeting places in the physical world to complete the deal (emails) Communicative and managerial
Crime lifestyle Order/reserve a specific animal/plant/product (com-mercial websites, dedicated forums, email) Communicative and managerial; organizational and relational
Crime Monitor the delivery via regular mail Informational and technical
Crime Payment (prepaid cards to be recharged online) Informational and technical
Crime lifestyle Contact directly consumers reassuring them that without documents the price is significantly lower (emails, dedicated forum) Persuasive
Crime lifestyle Discuss with potential customers the absence of required documentation (emails) Persuasive
Crime lifestyle Reassure customers about the quality of the animal/plant/product (commercial website, auction website) Persuasive
Stage 6: activities that are directly consequential or subsequent to the trafficking activity Lifestyle network Buy accessories/ share videos and pictures in cases of zooerasty where wildlife animals are involved (dedicated forums, deep web) Informational and technical; organizational and relational
Crime Monitor the delivery via regular mail Informational and technical
Crime Lifestyle Attempt to cover the criminal act by claiming that animals/plants/products have been imported in the past with CITES certificates but they have been all given to others (dedicated website) Persuasive