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Table 3 Types of counterfeiting (Adapted from (Spink, 2009b , Spink, 2007 ))

From: Defining the types of counterfeiters, counterfeiting, and offender organizations

Term Definition
Adulterate A component of the legitimate finished product is fraudulent
Tamper Legitimate product and package are used in a fraudulent way
Over-run Legitimate product is made in excess of production agreements
Theft Legitimate product is stolen and passed off as legitimately procured
Diversion The sale or distribution of legitimate product outside of intended markets
Simulation Illegitimate product is designed to look like but not exactly copy the legitimate product
Counterfeit All aspects of the fraudulent product and package are fully replicated
  1. Note: In each case, fraudsters may not be following the regulatory definitions of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs), or Good Hygiene Practices (GHPs).