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Table 2 Preliminary evidence test

From: Five tests for a theory of the crime drop

Hypotheses Levitt2004review Blumstein & Rosenfeld2008review This study
Strong economy x x x
Concealed weapons laws x x x
Capital punishment x x x
Gun control laws x x x
Rising prison population
Policing strategies x x
More police x
Legalization of abortion x
Immigration
Consumer confidence
Waning crack market
Childhood lead x
Changing demographics x x
Civilizing process
Improved security
  1. Legend: ✔ = Pass. x = Fail. ‘–’ = not applicable.